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BNSS Section 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172 Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha

Updated: Mar 1

D.—Disputes as to immovable property


Section 164 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Procedure where dispute concerning land or water is likely to cause breach of peace.


(1) Whenever an Executive Magistrate is satisfied from a report of a police officer or upon other information that a dispute likely to cause a breach of the peace exists concerning any land or water or the boundaries thereof, within his local jurisdiction, he shall make an order in writing, stating the grounds of his being so satisfied, and requiring the parties concerned in such dispute to attend his Court in person or by pleader, on a specified date and time, and to put in written statements of their respective claims as respects the fact of actual possession of the subject of dispute.


(2) For the purposes of this section, the expression "land or water" includes buildings, markets, fisheries, crops or other produce of land, and the rents or profits of any such property.


(3) A copy of the order shall be served in the manner provided by this Sanhita for the service of summons upon such person or persons as the Magistrate may direct, and at least one copy shall be published by being affixed to some conspicuous place at or near the subject of dispute.


(4) The Magistrate shall, without reference to the merits or the claims of any of the parties to a right to possess the subject of dispute, peruse the statements so put in, hear the parties, receive all such evidence as may be produced by them, take such further evidence,

if any, as he thinks necessary, and, if possible, decide whether any and which of the parties was, at the date of the order made by him under sub-section (1), in possession of the subject of dispute:


Provided that if it appears to the Magistrate that any party has been forcibly and wrongfully dispossessed within two months next before the date on which the report of a police officer or other information was received by the Magistrate, or after that date and before the date of his order under sub-section (1), he may treat the party so dispossessed as if that party had been in possession on the date of his order under sub-section (1).


(5) Nothing in this section shall preclude any party so required to attend, or any other person interested, from showing that no such dispute as aforesaid exists or has existed; and

in such case the Magistrate shall cancel his said order, and all further proceedings thereon shall be stayed, but, subject to such cancellation, the order of the Magistrate under sub-section (1) shall be final.


(6) (a) If the Magistrate decides that one of the parties was, or should under the proviso to sub-section (4) be treated as being, in such possession of the said subject of dispute, he shall issue an order declaring such party to be entitled to possession thereof until evicted therefrom in due course of law, and forbidding all disturbance of such possession until such eviction; and when he proceeds under the proviso to sub-section (4), may restore to possession the party forcibly and wrongfully dispossessed.


(b) The order made under this sub-section shall be served and published in the manner laid down in sub-section (3).


(7) When any party to any such proceeding dies, the Magistrate may cause the legal representative of the deceased party to be made a party to the proceeding and shall thereupon continue the inquiry, and if any question arises as to who the legal representative of a deceased party for the purposes of such proceeding is, all persons claiming to be representatives of the deceased party shall be made parties thereto.


(8) If the Magistrate is of opinion that any crop or other produce of the property, the subject of dispute in a proceeding under this section pending before him, is subject to speedy and natural decay, he may make an order for the proper custody or sale of such property, and, upon the completion of the inquiry, shall make such order for the disposal of such property, or the sale-proceeds thereof, as he thinks fit.


(9) The Magistrate may, if he thinks fit, at any stage of the proceedings under this section, on the application of either party, issue a summons to any witness directing him to attend or to produce any document or thing.


(10) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to be in derogation of powers of the Magistrate to proceed under section 126.


Section 165 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Power to attach subject of dispute and to appoint receiver.


(1) If the Magistrate at any time after making the order under sub-section (1) of section 164 considers the case to be one of emergency, or if he decides that none of the parties was then in such possession as is referred to in section 164, or if he is unable to satisfy himself as to which of them was then in such possession of the subject of dispute, he may attach the subject of dispute until a competent Court has determined the rights of the parties thereto with regard to the person entitled to the possession thereof:


Provided that such Magistrate may withdraw the attachment at any time if he is satisfied that there is no longer any likelihood of breach of the peace with regard to the subject of dispute.


(2) When the Magistrate attaches the subject of dispute, he may, if no receiver in relation to such subject of dispute has been appointed by any Civil Court, make such arrangements as he considers proper for looking after the property or if he thinks fit, appoint a receiver thereof, who shall have, subject to the control of the Magistrate, all the powers of a receiver appointed under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908:


Provided that in the event of a receiver being subsequently appointed in relation to the subject of dispute by any Civil Court, the Magistrate—


(a) shall order the receiver appointed by him to hand over the possession of the subject of dispute to the receiver appointed by the Civil Court and shall thereafter discharge the receiver appointed by him;


(b) may make such other incidental or consequential orders as may be just.


Section 166 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Dispute concerning right of use of land or water.


(1) Whenever an Executive Magistrate is satisfied from the report of a police

officer or upon other information, that a dispute likely to cause a breach of the peace exists regarding any alleged right of user of any land or water within his local jurisdiction, whether such right be claimed as an easement or otherwise, he shall make an order in writing, stating the grounds of his being so satisfied and requiring the parties concerned in such dispute to attend his Court in person or by an advocate on a specified date and time and to put in written statements of their respective claims.


Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression "land or water" has the meaning given to it in sub-section (2) of section 164.


(2) The Magistrate shall peruse the statements so put in, hear the parties, receive all such evidence as may be produced by them respectively, consider the effect of such evidence, take such further evidence, if any, as he thinks necessary and, if possible, decide whether such right exists; and the provisions of section 164 shall, so far as may be, apply in the case of such inquiry.


(3) If it appears to such Magistrate that such rights exist, he may make an order prohibiting any interference with the exercise of such right, including, in a proper case, an order for the removal of any obstruction in the exercise of any such right:


Provided that no such order shall be made where the right is exercisable at all times of the year, unless such right has been exercised within three months next before the receipt under sub-section (1) of the report of a police officer or other information leading to the institution of the inquiry, or where the right is exercisable only at particular seasons or on particular occasions, unless the right has been exercised during the last of such seasons or on the last of such occasions before such receipt.


(4) When in any proceedings commenced under sub-section (1) of section 164 the Magistrate finds that the dispute is as regards an alleged right of user of land or water, he may, after recording his reasons, continue with the proceedings as if they had been commenced under sub-section (1), and when in any proceedings commenced under sub-section (1) the Magistrate finds that the dispute should be dealt with under section 164, he may, after recording his reasons, continue with the proceedings as if they had been commenced under sub-section (1) of section 164.


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Section 167 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS), Bare Act:


Local inquiry.


(1) Whenever a local inquiry is necessary for the purposes of section 164, section 165 or section 166, a District Magistrate or Sub-divisional Magistrate may depute any Magistrate subordinate to him to make the inquiry, and may furnish him with such written instructions as may seem necessary for his guidance, and may declare by whom the whole or any part of the necessary expenses of the inquiry shall be paid.


(2) The report of the person so deputed may be read as evidence in the case.


(3) When any costs have been incurred by any party to a proceeding under section 164, section 165 or section 166, the Magistrate passing a decision may direct by whom such costs shall be paid, whether by such party or by any other party to the proceeding, and whether in whole or in part or proportion and such costs may include any expenses incurred in respect of witnesses and of advocates' fees, which the Court may consider reasonable.


CHAPTER XII PREVENTIVE ACTION OF THE POLICE


Section 168 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Police to prevent cognizable offences.


Every police officer may interpose for the purpose of preventing, and shall, to

the best of his ability, prevent, the commission of any cognizable offence.


Section 169 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Information of design to commit cognizable offences.


Every police officer receiving information of a design to commit any cognizable offence shall communicate such information to the police officer to whom he is subordinate, and to any other officer whose duty it is to prevent or take cognizance of the commission of any such offence.


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Section 170 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Arrest to prevent commission of cognizable offences.


(1) A police officer knowing of a design to commit any cognizable offence may arrest, without orders from a Magistrate and without a warrant, the person so designing, if it appears to such officer that the commission of the offence cannot be otherwise prevented.


(2) No person arrested under sub-section (1) shall be detained in custody for a period exceeding twenty-four hours from the time of his arrest unless his further detention is required or authorised under any other provisions of this Sanhita or of any other law for the time being in force.


Section 171 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Prevention of injury to public property.


A police officer may of his own authority interpose to prevent any injury attempted

to be committed in his view to any public property, movable or immovable, or the removal or injury of any public landmark, buoy or other mark used for navigation.


Section 172 BNSS| Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Persons bound to conform to lawful directions of police.


(1) All persons shall be bound to conform to the lawful directions of a police officer given in fulfilment of any of his duty under this Chapter.


(2) A police officer may detain or remove any person resisting, refusing, ignoring or disregarding to conform to any direction given by him under sub-section (1) and may either

take such person before a Magistrate or, in petty cases, release him when the occasion is past.



Links to important sections of Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):


Section 30 to Section 40 of BNSS (Provisions relating to Arrest starting from Section 35):


Section 144-163 (Section 144,145,146 and 147 relate maintenance proceedings):


Section 173-Section 187 (including section 173 relating to FIR):


Section 188 to Section 209 (including section 193 relating to chargesheet/police report):


Section 210 to Section 222 (including provisions relating to cognizance):


Section 473 to Section 492) (Including Section 480, Section 481, Section 482, Section 483, Section 484, Section 485 that is, provisions relating to bail):


BNSS Section 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172 Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha




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