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BSA Section 15 to 28, Section 16,17,18,19,20,21,22,24,25,27 BSA Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam|Bare act

Admissions


Section 15 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Admission defined.


An admission is a statement, oral or documentary or contained in electronic form, which suggests any inference as to any fact in issue or relevant fact, and which is made by any of the persons, and under the circumstances, hereinafter mentioned.


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Section 16 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Admission by party to proceeding or his agent.


(1) Statements made by a party to the proceeding, or by an agent to any such party ,whom the Court regards, under the circumstances of the case, as expressly or impliedly authorised by him to make them, are admissions.


(2) Statements made by—


(i) parties to suits suing or sued in a representative character, are not admissions,

unless they were made while the party making them held that character; or


(ii) persons who have any proprietary or pecuniary interest in the subject matter of the proceeding, and who make the statement in their character of persons so interested; or


(iii) persons from whom the parties to the suit have derived their interest in the subject matter of the suit, are admissions, if they are made during the continuance of the interest of the persons making the statements.


Section 17 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Admissions by persons whose position must be proved as against party to suits.


Statements made by persons whose position or liability, it is necessary to prove as against any party to the suit, are admissions, if such statements would be relevant as against such persons in relation to such position or liability in a suit brought by or against them, and if they are made whilst the person making them occupies such position or is subject to such liability.


Illustration.


A undertakes to collect rents for B. B sues A for not collecting rent due from C to B. A denies that rent was due from C to B. A statement by C that he owed B rent is an admission, and is a relevant fact as against A, if A denies that C did owe rent to B.


Section 18 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Admissions by persons expressly referred to by party to suit.


Statements made by persons to whom a party to the suit has expressly referred for information in reference to a matter in dispute are admissions.


Illustration.


The question is, whether a horse sold by A to B is sound.

A says to B—"Go and ask C, C knows all about it". C's statement is an admission.


Section 19 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Proof of admissions against persons making them, and by or on their behalf


Admissions are relevant and may be proved as against the person who makes them, or his representative in interest; but they cannot be proved by or on behalf of the person who makes them or by his representative in interest, except in the following cases, namely:—


(1) An admission may be proved by or on behalf of the person making it, when it is of such a nature that, if the person making it were dead, it would be relevant as between third persons under section 26;


(2) An admission may be proved by or on behalf of the person making it, when it consists of a statement of the existence of any state of mind or body, relevant or in issue, made at or about the time when such state of mind or body existed, and is accompanied by conduct rendering its falsehood improbable;


(3) An admission may be proved by or on behalf of the person making it, if it is relevant otherwise than as an admission.


Illustrations.


(a) The question between A and B is, whether a certain deed is or is not forged. A affirms that it is genuine, B that it is forged. A may prove a statement by B that the deed is genuine, and B may prove a statement by A that deed is forged; but A cannot prove a statement by himself that the deed is genuine, nor can B prove a statement by himself that

the deed is forged.


(b) A, the captain of a ship, is tried for casting her away. Evidence is given to show that the ship was taken out of her proper course. A produces a book kept by him in the ordinary course of his business showing observations alleged to have been taken by him from day to day, and indicating that the ship was not taken out of her proper course. A may prove these statements, because they would be admissible between third parties, if he were dead, under clause (b) of section 26.


(c) A is accused of a crime committed by him at Kolkata. He produces a letter written by himself and dated at Chennai on that day, and bearing the Chennai post-mark of that day. The statement in the date of the letter is admissible, because, if A were dead, it would be admissible under clause (b) of section 26.


(d) A is accused of receiving stolen goods knowing them to be stolen. He offers to prove that he refused to sell them below their value. A may prove these statements, though they are admissions, because they are explanatory of conduct influenced by facts in issue.


(e) A is accused of fraudulently having in his possession counterfeit currency which he knew to be counterfeit. He offers to prove that he asked a skilful person to examine the currency as he doubted whether it was counterfeit or not, and that person did examine it and told him it was genuine. A may prove these facts.


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Section 20 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


When oral admissions as to contents of documents are relevant.


Oral admissions as to the contents of a document are not relevant, unless and until the party proposing to prove them shows that he is entitled to give secondary evidence of the contents of such document under the rules hereinafter contained, or unless the genuineness of a document produced is in question.


Section 21 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Admissions in civil cases when relevant.


In civil cases no admission is relevant, if it is made either upon an express condition that evidence of it is not to be given, or under circumstances from which the Court can infer that the parties agreed together that evidence of it should not be given.


Explanation.—Nothing in this section shall be taken to exempt any advocate from giving evidence of any matter of which he may be compelled to give evidence under sub-sections (1) and (2) of section 132.


Section 22 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Confession caused by inducement, threat, coercion or promise, when irrelevant in criminal proceeding.


A confession made by an accused person is irrelevant in a criminal proceeding, if the making of the confession appears to the Court to have been caused by any inducement, threat, coercion or promise having reference to the charge against the accused person, proceeding from a person in authority and sufficient, in the opinion of the Court, to give the accused person grounds which would appear to him reasonable for supposing that by making it he would gain any advantage or avoid any evil of a temporal nature in reference to the proceedings against him:


Provided that if the confession is made after the impression caused by any such inducement, threat, coercion or promise has, in the opinion of the Court, been fully removed, it is relevant:


Provided further that if such a confession is otherwise relevant, it does not become irrelevant merely because it was made under a promise of secrecy, or in consequence of a deception practised on the accused person for the purpose of obtaining it, or when he was drunk, or because it was made in answer to questions which he need not have answered, whatever may have been the form of those questions, or because he was not warned that he was not bound to make such confession, and that evidence of it might be given against him.


Section 23 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Confession to police officer.


(1) No confession made to a police officer shall be proved as against a person accused of any offence.


(2) No confession made by any person while he is in the custody of a police officer, unless it is made in the immediate presence of a Magistrate shall be proved against him:


Provided that when any fact is deposed to as discovered in consequence of information received from a person accused of any offence, in the custody of a police officer, so much of such information, whether it amounts to a confession or not, as relates distinctly to the fact discovered, may be proved.


Section 24 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Consideration of proved confession affecting person making it and others jointly under trial for same offence.


When more persons than one are being tried jointly for the same offence, and a confession made by one of such persons affecting himself and some other of such persons is proved, the Court may take into consideration such confession as against such other person as well as against the person who makes such confession.


Explanation I.—"Offence", as used in this section, includes the abetment of, or attempt to commit, the offence.


Explanation II.—A trial of more persons than one held in the absence of the accused who has absconded or who fails to comply with a proclamation issued under section 84 of the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita, 2023 shall be deemed to be a joint trial for the purpose of this section.


Illustrations.


(a) A and B are jointly tried for the murder of C. It is proved that A said—"B and I

murdered C". The Court may consider the effect of this confession as against B.


(b) A is on his trial for the murder of C. There is evidence to show that C was murdered

by A and B, and that B said—"A and I murdered C". This statement may not be taken into consideration by the Court against A, as B is not being jointly tried.


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Section 25 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Admissions not conclusive proof, but may estop.


Admissions are not conclusive proof of the matters admitted but they may operate as estoppels under the provisions hereinafter contained.


Section 26 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Cases in which statement of relevant fact by person who is dead or cannot be found, etc., is relevant.


Statements, written or verbal, of relevant facts made by a person who is dead, or who cannot be found, or who has become incapable of giving evidence, or whose attendance cannot be procured without an amount of delay or expense which under the circumstances of the case appears to the Court unreasonable, are themselves relevant facts in the following cases, namely:—


(a) When the statement is made by a person as to the cause of his death, or as to any of the circumstances of the transaction which resulted in his death, in cases in which the cause of that person's death comes into question. Such statements are relevant whether the person who made them was or was not, at the time when they were made, under expectation of death, and whatever may be the nature of the proceeding in which the cause of his death comes into question;


(b) When the statement was made by such person in the ordinary course of 35 business, and in particular when it consists of any entry or memorandum made by him in books kept in the ordinary course of business, or in the discharge of professional duty; or of an acknowledgement written or signed by him of the receipt of money, goods, securities or property of any kind; or of a document used in commerce written or signed by him; or of the date of a letter or other document usually dated, written or signed by him;


(c) When the statement is against the pecuniary or proprietary interest of the person making it, or when, if true, it would expose him or would have exposed him to a criminal prosecution or to a suit for damages;


(d) When the statement gives the opinion of any such person, as to the existence of any public right or custom or matter of public or general interest, of the existence of which, if it existed, he would have been likely to be aware, and when such statement was made before any controversy as to such right, custom or matter had arisen;


(e) When the statement relates to the existence of any relationship by blood, marriage or adoption between persons as to whose relationship by blood, marriage or adoption the person making the statement had special means of knowledge, and when the statement was made before the question in dispute was raised;


(f) When the statement relates to the existence of any relationship by blood, marriage or adoption between persons deceased, and is made in any will or deed relating to the affairs of the family to which any such deceased person belonged, or in any family pedigree, or upon any tombstone, family portrait or other thing on which such statements are usually made, and when such statement was made before the question in dispute was raised;


(g) When the statement is contained in any deed, will or other document which relates to any such transaction as is specified in clause (a) of section 11;


(h) When the statement was made by a number of persons, and expressed feelings or impressions on their part relevant to the matter in question.


Illustrations.


(a) The question is, whether A was murdered by B; or A dies of injuries received in a transaction in the course of which she was raped. The question is whether she was raped by B; or the question is, whether A was killed by B under such circumstances that a suit would lie against B by A's widow. Statements made by A as to the cause of his or her death, referring respectively to the murder, the rape and the actionable wrong under consideration, are relevant facts.


(b) The question is as to the date of A's birth. An entry in the diary of a deceased surgeon regularly kept in the course of business, stating that, on a given day he attended A's mother and delivered her of a son, is a relevant fact.


(c) The question is, whether A was in Nagpur on a given day. A statement in the diary of a deceased solicitor, regularly kept in the course of business, that on a given day the solicitor attended A at a place mentioned, in Nagpur, for the purpose of conferring with him upon specified business, is a relevant fact.


(d) The question is, whether a ship sailed from Mumbai harbour on a given day. A letter written by a deceased member of a merchant's firm by which she was chartered to their correspondents in Chennai, to whom the cargo was consigned, stating that the ship sailed on a given day from Mumbai port, is a relevant fact.


(e) The question is, whether rent was paid to A for certain land. A letter from A's deceased agent to A, saying that he had received the rent on A's account and held it at A's orders is a relevant fact.


(f) The question is, whether A and B were legally married. The statement of a deceased clergyman that he married them under such circumstances that the celebration would be a crime is relevant.


(g) The question is, whether A, a person who cannot be found, wrote a letter on a certain day. The fact that a letter written by him is dated on that day is relevant.


(h) The question is, what was the cause of the wreck of a ship. A protest made by the captain, whose attendance cannot be procured, is a relevant fact.


(i) The question is, whether a given road is a public way. A statement by A, a deceased headman of the village, that the road was public, is a relevant fact.


(j) The question is, what was the price of grain on a certain day in a particular market. A statement of the price, made by a deceased business person in the ordinary course of his business, is a relevant fact.


(k) The question is, whether A, who is dead, was the father of B. A statement by A that B was his son, is a relevant fact.


(l) The question is, what was the date of the birth of A. A letter from A's deceased father to a friend, announcing the birth of A on a given day, is a relevant fact.


(m) The question is, whether, and when, A and B were married. An entry in a 5 memorandum book by C, the deceased father of B, of his daughter's marriage with A on a given date, is a relevant fact.


(n) A sues B for a libel expressed in a painted caricature exposed in a shop window. The question is as to the similarity of the caricature and its libellous character. The remarks of a crowd of spectators on these points may be proved.


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Section 27 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Relevancy of certain evidence for proving, in subsequent proceeding, truth of facts therein stated.


Evidence given by a witness in a judicial proceeding, or before any person authorised by law to take it, is relevant for the purpose of proving, in a subsequent judicial proceeding, or in a later stage of the same judicial proceeding, the truth of the facts which

it states, when the witness is dead or cannot be found, or is incapable of giving evidence,

or is kept out of the way by the adverse party, or if his presence cannot be obtained without 15 an amount of delay or expense which, under the circumstances of the case, the Court considers unreasonable:


Provided that the proceeding was between the same parties or their representatives in interest; that the adverse party in the first proceeding had the right and opportunity to cross-examine and the questions in issue were substantially the same in the first as in the second proceeding.


Explanation.—A criminal trial or inquiry shall be deemed to be a proceeding between the prosecutor and the accused within the meaning of this section.



Section 28 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Entries in books of account when relevant.


Entries in the books of account, including those maintained in an electronic form, regularly kept in the course of business are relevant whenever they refer to a matter into which the Court has to inquire, but such statements shall not alone be sufficient evidence to charge any person with liability.


Illustration.


A sues B for one thousand rupees, and shows entries in his account books showing B to be indebted to him to this amount. The entries are relevant, but are not sufficient, without other evidence, to prove the debt.


Section 29 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Relevancy of entry in public record or an electronic record made in performance of duty.


An entry in any public or other official book, register or record or an electronic record, stating a fact in issue or relevant fact, and made by a public servant in the discharge of his official duty, or by any other person in performance of a duty specially enjoined by the law of the country in which such book, register or record or an electronic record, is kept, is itself a relevant fact.


Section 30 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Relevancy of statements in maps, charts and plans.


Statements of facts in issue or relevant facts, made in published maps or charts generally offered for public sale, or in maps or plans made under the authority of the Central Government or any State Government, as to matters usually represented or stated in such maps, charts or plans, are themselves relevant facts.


Section 31 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Relevancy of statement as to fact of public nature contained in certain Acts or notifications.


When the Court has to form an opinion as to the existence of any fact of a public nature, any statement of it, made in a recital contained in any Central Act or State Act or in a Central Government or State Government notification appearing in the respective Official Gazette or in any printed paper or in electronic or digital form purporting to be such Gazette, is a relevant fact.


Section 32 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Relevancy of statements as to any law contained in law books including electronic or digital form.


When the Court has to form an opinion as to a law of any country, any statement of such law contained in a book purporting to be printed or published including in electronic or digital form under the authority of the Government of such country and to contain any such law, and any report of a ruling of the Courts of such country contained in a book including in electronic or digital form purporting to be a report of such rulings, is relevant.


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Section 33 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


What evidence to be given when statement forms part of a conversation, document, electronic record, book or series of letters or papers.


When any statement of which evidence is given forms part of a longer statement, or of a conversation or part of an isolated document, or is contained in a document which forms part of a book, or is contained in part of electronic record or of a connected series of letters or papers, evidence shall be given of so much and no more of the statement, conversation, document, electronic record, book or series of letters or papers as the Court considers necessary in that particular case to the full understanding of the nature and effect of the statement, and of the circumstances under which it was made.


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BSA Section 15 to 28, Section 16,17,18,19,20,21,22,24,25,27 BSA Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam|Bare act

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