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BSA Section 139-148,Section 140,141,142,143,144,145,146,147 BSA|Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam Bare Act

Updated: Mar 2

Section 139 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Number of witnesses.


No particular number of witnesses shall in any case be required for the proof of 5 any fact.


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CHAPTER X


OF EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES


Section 140 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Order of production and examination of witnesses.


The order in which witnesses are produced and examined shall be regulated by the law and practice for the time being relating to civil and criminal procedure respectively, and, in the absence of any such law, by the discretion of the Court.


Section 141 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Judge to decide as to admissibility of evidence.


(1) When either party proposes to give evidence of any fact, the Judge may ask the party proposing to give the evidence in what manner the alleged fact, if proved, would be relevant; and the Judge shall admit the evidence if he thinks that the fact, if proved, would be relevant, and not otherwise.


(2) If the fact proposed to be proved is one of which evidence is admissible only upon proof of some other fact, such last mentioned fact must be proved before evidence is given of the fact first mentioned, unless the party undertakes to give proof of such fact, and the Court is satisfied with such undertaking.


(3) If the relevancy of one alleged fact depends upon another alleged fact being first 20 proved, the Judge may, in his discretion, either permit evidence of the first fact to be given before the second fact is proved, or require evidence to be given of the second fact before evidence is given of the first fact.


Illustrations.


(a) It is proposed to prove a statement about a relevant fact by a person alleged to be dead, which statement is relevant under section 26. The fact that the person is dead must be proved by the person proposing to prove the statement, before evidence is given of the statement.


(b) It is proposed to prove, by a copy, the contents of a document said to be lost. The fact that the original is lost must be proved by the person proposing to produce the copy, before the copy is produced.


(c) A is accused of receiving stolen property knowing it to have been stolen. It is proposed to prove that he denied the possession of the property. The relevancy of the denial depends on the identity of the property. The Court may, in its discretion, either require the property to be identified before the denial of the possession is proved, or permit the denial of the possession to be proved before the property is identified.


(d) It is proposed to prove a fact A which is said to have been the cause or effect of a fact in issue. There are several intermediate facts B, C and D which must be shown to exist before the fact A can be regarded as the cause or effect of the fact in issue. The Court may either permit A to be proved before B, C or D is proved, or may require proof of B, C and D before permitting proof of A.


Section 142 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Examination of witnesses.


(1) The examination of a witness by the party who calls him shall be called his examination-in-chief.


(2) The examination of a witness by the adverse party shall be called his cross-examination.


(3) The examination of a witness, subsequent to the cross-examination, by the party who called him, shall be called his re-examination.


Section 143 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Order of examinations.


(1) Witnesses shall be first examined-in-chief, then (if the adverse party so desires) cross-examined, then (if the party calling him so desires) re-examined.


(2) The examination-in-chief and cross-examination must relate to relevant facts, but

the cross-examination need not be confined to the facts to which the witness testified on

his examination-in-chief.


(3) The re-examination shall be directed to the explanation of matters referred to in cross-examination; and, if new matter is, by permission of the Court, introduced in re-examination, the adverse party may further cross-examine upon that matter.


Section 144 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Cross- examination of person called to produce a document.


A person summoned to produce a document does not become a witness by the mere fact that he produces it, and cannot be cross-examined unless and until he is called as a witness.


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Section 145 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Witnesses to character.


Witnesses to character may be cross-examined and re-examined.


Section 146 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Leading questions.


(1) Any question suggesting the answer which the person putting it wishes or expects to receive, is called a leading question.


(2) Leading questions must not, if objected to by the adverse party, be asked in an examination-in-chief, or in a re-examination, except with the permission of the Court.


(3) The Court shall permit leading questions as to matters which are introductory or undisputed, or which have, in its opinion, been already sufficiently proved.


(4) Leading questions may be asked in cross-examination.


Section 147 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Evidence as to matters in writing.


Any witness may be asked, while under examination, whether any contract, grant or other disposition of property, as to which he is giving evidence, was not contained in a document, and if he says that it was, or if he is about to make any statement as to the contents of any document, which, in the opinion of the Court, ought to be produced, the adverse party may object to such evidence being given until such document is produced,

or until facts have been proved which entitle the party who called the witness to give secondary evidence of it.


Explanation.—A witness may give oral evidence of statements made by other persons about the contents of documents if such statements are in themselves relevant facts.


Illustration.


The question is, whether A assaulted B. C deposes that he heard A say to D—"B wrote a letter accusing me of theft, and I will be revenged on him". This statement is relevant, as showing A's motive for the assault, and evidence may be given of it, though no other evidence is given about the letter.


Section 148 BSA | Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam, 2023


Cross- examination as to previous statements in writing.


A witness may be cross-examined as to previous statements made by him in writing or reduced into writing, and relevant to matters in question, without such writing being shown to him, or being proved; but, if it is intended to contradict him by the writing, his attention must, before the writing can be proved, be called to those parts of it which are to be used for the purpose of contradicting him.


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BSA Section 139-148,Section 140,141,142,143,144,145,146,147 BSA|Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam Bare Act




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